Concrete is porous , water can either enter from the top or below , it will dry out depending on how much sun it gets , sealing the top layer will stop water passing but it’s expensive and if water is coming from below will stop drying out and can cause cracking if the water freezes in winter .
Some drain may be necessary to prevent water ingress in the first place , but this may or may not be practical depending on the location of the water and area size or length .
It is really a cosmetic thing as the salts rise through the concrete rather than a structural thing , using mats would be the cheapest option I think and much less effort than laying a damp course and maybe concrete tiles
Over the top .
The problem probably stems from the original floor instal , with not enough drainage or over clay type soil , unfortunately we lost the ability to build at high standards , that’s why 200 year old houses will be up in another 200 years and new build lucky to last 50 !!
Victorian builders paid thruppence a year , modern builders /developers drive Porsche’s
Go figure ..